Boys managed the buffalo and herded them to road ditchs so they could forage. I do not remember any useable land dedicated to pasturage. Roadside ditches, rice paddy dikes and tree covered land provided small plots where ox were herded to graze and contained (not always) by boys. The few men above 16 were geezer old or handicapped in some way. Most farming was done by women and young boys. After age 16 boys were invited to join the army; the Vietnamese version of “an offer you cannot refuse”.