Saigon February 1969 4

The Cholon area of Saigon was a ghetto of Chinese businessmen. Fighting invasions and subjugation by China over thousands of years produced some sour feelings by Vietnamese. Many major streets in Saigon were named in honor of past rulers who died fighting Chinese invaders or committed suicide rather than surrender.

French flags flew in several upscale neighborhoods built before the 1954 surrender ended their occupation of Vietnam. American leaders ridiculed the French failure when their leaders advised caution in our taking over. Taking their advice and understanding why they were defeated might have slowed or stopped our involvement. Or might have caused no change.

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