Nothing hurried rice farmers. They worked a steady pace without breaks from sun up to sun down. During rice planting they worked bent over in knee-deep water placing each plant by hand. Working that way in the brutal heat and humidity demanded tenacity and endurance.

Most adult males had been drafted into the South Vietnamese military, leaving women, children and crippled men for work. Irrigation water in canals at the edge of fields provided the supply and was moved into the paddy using manual labor. Not a single phase of rice growing substituted machines for human labor.

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